The problem of the constant availability of clean drinking water in your home or country house is one of the most pressing. Each owner of private real estate would like to solve it quickly and at the lowest cost. The device of the Abyssinian well is one of the simplest and most economical solutions for autonomous water supply. They invented it in the 19th century, and this method of extracting water is still popular.
Device and principle of operation of the Abyssinian well
Structurally, it is an iron tube assembled from segments and interconnected by means of couplings. At the end of the lower tube a mesh filter and a sharp metal tip, which is called a needle, are welded. For pumping out water, the design provides a manual pump operating on the principle of vacuum. In order that the well could be used all the year round, its upper part is warmed. The small size of the device allows you to install it right in the house. In this case, the insulation may not be necessary.
The high popularity of downhole wells is based on many of its advantages:
- ease of installation allows you to do without the involvement of special equipment and workers;
- does not take a lot of place, installation is possible even in the house;
- does not depend on electricity supply;
- it is possible to pierce a well-needle only in one day, and to use it for many years;
- if necessary, the entire structure can be disassembled and moved to another place;
- installation of a driving well does not require a lot of money and labor.
Separately, it can be noted that this type of well gives pure water in its quality not worse than artesian, but noticeably less rigid.
The disadvantages of the Abyssinian well are as follows:
- Abyssinian well is effective when the water is not lower than 8-9 meters. Otherwise, the pump will not be able to pump it;
- you can miss the aquifer when driving the needle;
- if the needle stumbles upon a stone or bed of hard clay during the driving process, you will have to choose another place for the well;
- the construction of the well does not allow equipping it with a submersible pump.
The easiest way to make a well-needle on sandy soil, to pierce the clay layer is much harder, and the rocky soil is not at all suitable for these purposes.
How to make an Abyssinian well: stages of work
Before starting the construction of the well, the following tools and materials should be prepared. We will need:
- from tools: Bulgarian, drill, welding machine, sledgehammer, garden auger with a diameter of about 15 cm, gas wrench, hammer.
- from materials: pipe sections of the desired diameter, bolts and nuts, stainless steel mesh, wire, clamps, non-return valve, pumping station.
If in the process of driving it turns out that any other devices are needed, it is not difficult to find them all in commercial markets or shops.
When all the necessary things have been prepared and a place has been chosen for the well, it is necessary to make a needle filter.
There are two ways of arrangement: driving or drilling.
The hammering method is simpler, it is easier to do by yourself. The principle of driving is as follows: for driving a needle, use a driving hammer; in the process of working, water is poured into the pipe from time to time. When using this method, you need to pay attention to the following points: the hammering method can break or damage the needle if it hits an obstacle, or skip the aquifer. But this method is cheaper and does not require hiring specialists.
The second method involves the use of special equipment and craftsmen, but it is much easier to find an aquifer. Consider it in more detail.
Abyssinian well drilling
Three methods are used for drilling:
- with the help of a sliding grandma and a backing;
- butt-head stuffing with a plug;
- driving with barbell
After reviewing all three methods, you can choose for yourself the most optimal.
Zabivka using sliding headstock and gutter
The first half meter or meter is drilled with an ordinary garden drill. Then a pipe with a tip is inserted into the drilled hole and adjusted to the level. It should go vertically. Next, put on the tube lower ring in order to fix the grandma. Put the grandmother on the tip and fasten a fixing ring to it. In order to hammer the pipe into the ground, raise the grandma by the handles and lower it with force. A few blows are enough for the meter pipe to go into the sand. Then the grandmother and the fixing ring are removed, the pipe is extended and the initial steps for driving the grandmother are repeated. At the end of drilling, water must be poured into the pipe. If it leaves the pipe quickly, then the tip has reached the aquifer. Upon reaching the aquifer, the pipe is extended by another half a meter, the pump is attached to it and pumping of water begins. It is necessary to pump over before the appearance of clean, without impurities and turbidity, water. Then you need to make a concrete pavement: remove the soil on the spade bayonet, pour it with sand, tamp it down, put a reinforcing mesh and pour concrete. To drain the water, the edges are concrete just below the middle of the blind area.
The sequence of blocking looks like this:
- a filter pipe is inserted into the drilled hole;
- threaded rods are assembled into the bar and inserted into the tube;
- driving is done with a bar until it almost completely enters the pipe;
- the rod is extended by the next bar and the process is repeated;
- periodically in the pipe you need to pour water, so as not to miss the aquifer.
It should be noted that all connections must be sealed. As a sealant, flax and FUM tape can be used.
All three methods are used for driving the Abyssinian well. The latter is more convenient to use on the street, and in the house - the grandmother because of the ceiling height limit.
The easiest method is to drill a well with one self-made drill. The width of the drill should coincide with the diameter of the well. As the drill goes down, it is gradually increased by new extension rods, and the gate is put on the upper end.
Tips for using the Abyssinian well
If the well is used regularly, it will last longer. At the same time, the water remains stably clean and the flow rate of the well does not change. If the well is not used in winter, it must be mothballed until spring. From the supply pipe you need to drain the water and cover the pump with waterproof material from rain and snow. Before starting operation in the next season, the well must be pumped.
Install caisson chamber
The Abyssinian well can be equipped with a caisson. It is needed in those cases when water is pumped using an electric pump, and the well itself is located on the street. To install the caisson around the well dig a pit with a depth slightly below the level of soil freezing. The width of the pit should allow the descent and maintenance of pumping equipment. At the same time, you can dig a trench in order to get water into the house. The bottom of the pit and trenches are covered with sand and rammed. Next, reinforced concrete rings are installed in the pit, at the level of the trench a hole is punched in the ring for pipe withdrawal. The bottom of the pit is concreted and left to harden for several days. From above install a cover with the hatch, coat seams with cement mortar or special mastic-sealant. Next, mount the pumping equipment and hydroaccumulator, connect the well to the pump and check the performance. The cover of the caisson is insulated.
To make an Abyssinian well with your own hands, no paperwork is required, and it will provide clean water for many years. In a large farm, the simplicity of its device will allow to drill 2-3 wells - in the house, for watering the site, for animals. The water obtained from the Abyssinian well is distinguished by its purity and the absence of a large amount of salts and minerals, which is typical of artesian water. It does not require special cleaning and is suitable for all needs.